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Fighting the Cold
입력 2013.01.03 (15:26) 수정 2013.01.03 (15:57) News Today
자동재생
동영상영역 시작
동영상영역 끝
[Anchor Lead]

The deep freeze continues in Korea, and many people are struggling to deal with the icy cold and heavy snow.

[Pkg]

A countryside road is blanketed in snow. Buses don't run as scheduled because of the heavy snow. An elderly man tries to plow the snow that is waist-high but there's no end in sight. The residents have almost run out of firewood as well.

[Soundbite] Kim Hae-su(Resident) : "I used to get wood from the forest in a handcart whenever I had time, but I can't go to there because of the snow."

Even multiple layers of clothing can't stave off the cold. Cars barely move on an icy road.

[Soundbite] Yeom Jae-gil(Deliveryman) : "In the morning, it took me two hours to drive from Songcheon-dong to Deokjin-dong to get tire chains. There were a lot of car accidents."

Drivers that are getting their car batteries replaced and buying winter gear are rising sharply. Traditional markets are deserted as few customers dare to shop for groceries in the icy weather. The cold spell and heavy snowfalls have lasted for half a month now, causing difficulties for many people.

2. Snowy Burden

[Anchor Lead]

Local governments nationwide are trying their best to remove the snow from the streets, but they’ve already run out of resources.

[Pkg]

A snowplow sprinkles calcium chloride on an icy road. This year, it takes more calcium chloride to melt the snow because it's been snowing often, with about 7 centimeters of precipitation falling each time. It snowed for 13 days in Daejeon last month alone, with the total amount of precipitation exceeding 39 centimeters. That's three times as many snowy days as usual, and eight times as much snow as in previous years. Calcium chloride is now in short supply. The Daejeon City government has already used half of the 760 tons of salt it had prepared for this winter. In 2011, that amount was enough to be used throughout the winter.

[Soundbite] Myeong Je-seok(Daejeon Metropolitan Government) : "Since Dec. 3, except for one or two days, we removed snow almost daily."

The Chungcheong headquarters of the Korea Expressway Corporation has used 90 percent of the 3200 tons of calcium chloride it had stocked up for this winter. Local governments nationwide are running out of snow removing materials and have no choice but to substitute them with salt or sand. As orders for calcium chloride have poured in, its price recently soared 50 percent, and it's not even always in stock. With more frequent snowfalls expected this winter, snow removal efforts will likely hit many snags.

3. Slippery Streets

[Anchor Lead]

Walking is a treacherous task on the nation’s frozen streets these days. Here are some precautions to take to avoid a painful tumble.

[Pkg]

This woman in her 70s slipped in front of her home and is suffering from a fracture in her hip bone. She says she didn't know the street was icy under the snow. This winter's record-breaking chill and heavy snowfall froze up streets and roads all across Korea. Due to this, many pedestrians are suffering from injuries after slipping and falling. Nationwide, an average of around 290 people are being injured every day because of the frozen roads. Since winter began, around 7,000 people have been injured from slipping. Icy paths are especially dangerous for the elderly who have weaker bones and sense of balance and have slower reactions. In the case of this hospital, all of the some 20 patients that were recently hospitalized after falling on ice are 60 or older. To prevent such accidents, doctors advise staying indoors on snowy days if possible, and avoiding walking on snowy or icy streets.

[Soundbite] Dr. Park Geun-ho(Orthopedist) : "Since a lot of seniors have severe osteoporosis, there’s a high risks they’ll fracture their hip, spine or wrist when falling."

Doctors also recommend seeing a physician after falling even if nothing seems wrong since inflammation can occur in the bones or cartilage.

4. In Transition

[Anchor Lead]

President-elect Park Geun-hye looks ready to announce the complete roster of her transition committee as early as Friday. Meanwhile, the ruling and opposition parties have decided to hold an extraordinary parliamentary session this month.

[Pkg]

President-elect Park Geun-hye says she will announce the lineup of her transition committee within this week. The announcement came later than expected, because candidates for transition team members are thoroughly screened for their tax payments, military service and possible criminal records.

[Soundbite] Yoon Chang-jung(Spokesman, Transition Committee) : "Procedures are necessary to confirm if they’re qualified to be transition committee members."

An aide to the president-elect said that the transition team will begin its duties this coming weekend. He added that although the launch of the transition team has been delayed, there should be no problems with power transition as long as the team is run efficiently. Working-level preparations have already begun. Twenty-eight officials of the ruling Saenuri Party were dispatched to make working-level preparations for the transition team on January 3. Four out of the transition team's nine departments will move into the central government complex in Gwanghwamun, because its office in Samcheong-dong is too small. Meanwhile, the ruling and opposition parties have promised to make a fresh start in their New Year ceremonies on January 2.

[Soundbite] Rep. Hwang Woo Yea(Saenuri Party) : "Above all, we should exert our every effort to reform the party."

[Soundbite] Rep. Park Ki-choon(Floor Leader, Democratic United Party) : "We’ll examine and reflect on ourselves on whether we’ve thrown away our personal interests and motives. We’ll reform and evaluate ourselves thoroughly and rigorously."

The parties have agreed to hold an extraordinary parliamentary session this month. The ruling Saenuri Party is calling for a government overhaul, while the main opposition Democratic United Party is urging the launch of a parliamentary inspection into the labor dispute at Ssangyong Motor.

5. Insurance Promises

[Anchor Lead]

One of Park's campaign pledges was to expand national health insurance coverage to include four serious diseases. But a lack of funding remains a serious stumbling block.

[Pkg]

During her presidential campaign, President-elect Park Geun-hye promised that people will not have to worry anymore about health care costs.

[Soundbite] Park Geun-hye(President-Elect/Dec. 15, 2012) : "Even if one member becomes seriously ill, the entire family’s economy crumbles. There are cases where families that were once in the middle class fall into poverty."

Park says she will expand the national health insurance coverage to include cancer, heart and cerebrovascular diseases as well as rare, hard-to-cure diseases regardless of their treatment costs. She promised full coverage by 2016. The president-elect also pledged that people who are 65 and older will gradually receive national insurance coverage for dental implants as well. Park wants to overhaul the current medicare system, which provides health care costs according to an individual's income. She wants to classify it into 10 stages instead of the current three, so that the lowest-income people will have to pay no more than 470 dollars in health care costs every year. But funding remains an issue. The only way to keep the campaign pledge is by cutting down on unnecessary expenses and receiving help from the Treasury to make up for health insurance costs. It's up to the incoming administration to make the plan work.

[Soundbite] Prof. Kim Sang-cheol(Hansei University) : "No concrete measures have yet been suggested on how much financing will be needed or how to obtain this amount."

Park also promised to raise charity funds to help people pay for nursing costs, not provided by the national health insurance, but critics say the idea is simply unrealistic. This year, the National Assembly cut the health care budget by more than 560 million U.S. dollars. Unless there is a fundamental solution, the president-elect's campaign pledges regarding health care could hit a snag as soon as she takes office.

6. Flu Alert

[Anchor Lead]

The seasonal flu is slowly beginning to spread nationwide. Children, seniors and those with chronic diseases should take extra care.

[Pkg]

This six year old girl was brought to the hospital because of a fever, cough and a runny nose. The girl was eventually hospitalized as her the flu turned into pneumonia. An influenza pandemic is announced when at least four out of a thousand outpatients are diagnosed with the flu. The number of flu patients grew from 2.7 out of a thousand in the second week of December to 2.8 in the third week. If the trend continues, the flu pandemic could spread fast in mid-January and reach its peak at the end of the month. This time, symptoms include a high fever and severe muscle pain. The H3 virus found in the seasonal flu this time is known to have the most severe symptoms among all seasonal influenza viruses.

[Soundbite] Prof. Kim U-ju(Korea University Guro Hospital) : "For the elderly and those with chronic illnesses, the A/H3 type flu can develop into pneumonia, hospitalizing them and even leading to death. It’s a very severe type of flu."

As the flu pandemic can continue into April, doctors advise people who are 65 and older as well as those with chronic diseases to get flu shots as soon as possible. Doctors say that at least eight glasses of water a day and good personal hygiene habits help keep the flu at bay.

7. Rain Storm

[Anchor Lead]

Singer and actor Rain has come under fire for receiving 94 days off from his mandatory military service last year. The Defense Ministry is investigating whether he received special privileges because of his star status.

[Pkg]

Singer Rain, whose real name is Jung Ji-hoon, began his military duties in 2011. Since last March, he has worked as a celebrity soldier for the Defense Ministry's PR Support Team. The ministry's documents say that the singer took 50 days off in the form of rewards and leaves after arduous duties. He also took 44 more days off under the pretext of dance and concert rehearsals. In other words, the singer spent 94 days outside his military barracks without even taking a regular leave. Soldiers can usually take 43 days off including their regular leave, but Rain had twice that amount.

[Soundbite] Im Eui-jung(Fmr. Soldier) : "For ordinary people it's difficult to even take one day off, so it doesn’t make sense for only celebrity soldiers to get treated to such long leaves."

The Defense Ministry has launched a probe to figure out if Rain received any privileges. If the investigation reveals that he used his 44 days off for personal matters, he will receive a penalty. A military official says that Rain has suspended his activities in the military's PR Support Team and is awaiting the investigation. The military's PR team has 15 celebrity soldiers, who may inevitably undergo investigations themselves.

8. Juke Box Musicals

[Anchor Lead]

So-called "juke box musicals," which feature nostalgic songs, are grabbing the spotlight these days. Check it out.

[Pkg]

The music of late composer Lee Young-hoon, who was known for his fantastic collaboration with singer Lee Moon-se back in the 80s and 90s, never stops enchanting listeners. This musical features all of the late composer's hit songs. It debuted in 2011 and was even staged in Japan. The popular songs of composer Oh Tae-ho, who rose to stardom in the 1990s, are also performed these days in a musical. These "juke box musicals" featuring nostalgic and romantic songs tug on the heartstrings of people in their 30s and 40s.

[Soundbite] Hong Ji-min(Actress) : "This musical reminds me of the old days. Rather than acting, it's like going back to that time and enjoying the nostalgia. "

Retro-style original musicals are rising in popularity these days. One of them features the songs of late singer Kim Kwang-seok. But some say that they have yet to perfect their dramatical aspect to enhance the romantic mood of the music.

[Soundbite] Prof. Won Jong-won(Musical Critic) : "Their experimental aspects, development, maturity, and growth are still not sufficient."

Once their plots are improved, juke box musicals could broaden the horizon of the performance arts in the long term.

9. Heater Danger

[Anchor Lead]

The bitter cold is bumping up the number of heating devices in use in homes around the nation, but if you’re not careful, they can be dangerous.

[Pkg]

The use of heating devices is growing every day as the freezing weather continues.

[Soundbite] "No one knew that I would get burns like this. "

This woman has been receiving medical treatment for two weeks for burns that were caused by heating pads.

[Soundbite] Dr. Mun Deok-ju(Burn Specialist) : "Low-temperature burns that damage the skin are caused by chronic exposure to heat at low levels of 40 degrees (Celsius), which is a bit higher than body temperature. "

Another patient got burns from an electric mat.

[Soundbite] Kim Gwang-sun(Burn Patient) : "How on earth could this happen? I would have felt the heat if it were hot. But I felt nothing when I got these burns. I found them after I returned home and took a shower, because they were itching. "

This is a test on the potential danger of common heating devices. A pillow is put on a heated electric mat. An egg is put under the pillow. An hour later, the egg is almost cooked. A symptom of low-temperature burns is marked redness and coloring in localized areas of the skin. It’s caused by repeated exposure to lower heat than that which causes a thermal burn.

[Soundbite] Dr. Kim Sang-deok(Dermatologist) : "It’s a unique type of burn that’s caused by direct exposure of the skin to infrared ray from heaters or other heating devices. "

Those marks tend to persist.

[Soundbite] "People can get burns if they are repeatedly exposed to the heat. The risk of skin caner also grows if they neglect low-temperature burns. In a nutshell, they stand a high chance of getting skin cancer. "

Here are some first-aid tips on how to deal with low-temperature burns. First, wash the burn with water or saline solution to cool it down. Next, take the patient to a hospital after drying the skin with a clean towel.

[Soundbite] "Patients must avoid taking off clothes and popping blisters near the burn. "

As always, prevention is the best medicine. Heating pads and electric mats should not be placed directly on the skin. Foot bathing devices should only be used for less than half an hour.

[Soundbite] "In many cases, low-temperature burns are deep, although they’re small in size. It’s important for patients to receive good medical treatment at a hospital when they get low-temperature burns."

If you use them correctly, heating devices don’t have to be dangerous.
  • Fighting the Cold
    • 입력 2013-01-03 14:52:05
    • 수정2013-01-03 15:57:14
    News Today
[Anchor Lead]

The deep freeze continues in Korea, and many people are struggling to deal with the icy cold and heavy snow.

[Pkg]

A countryside road is blanketed in snow. Buses don't run as scheduled because of the heavy snow. An elderly man tries to plow the snow that is waist-high but there's no end in sight. The residents have almost run out of firewood as well.

[Soundbite] Kim Hae-su(Resident) : "I used to get wood from the forest in a handcart whenever I had time, but I can't go to there because of the snow."

Even multiple layers of clothing can't stave off the cold. Cars barely move on an icy road.

[Soundbite] Yeom Jae-gil(Deliveryman) : "In the morning, it took me two hours to drive from Songcheon-dong to Deokjin-dong to get tire chains. There were a lot of car accidents."

Drivers that are getting their car batteries replaced and buying winter gear are rising sharply. Traditional markets are deserted as few customers dare to shop for groceries in the icy weather. The cold spell and heavy snowfalls have lasted for half a month now, causing difficulties for many people.

2. Snowy Burden

[Anchor Lead]

Local governments nationwide are trying their best to remove the snow from the streets, but they’ve already run out of resources.

[Pkg]

A snowplow sprinkles calcium chloride on an icy road. This year, it takes more calcium chloride to melt the snow because it's been snowing often, with about 7 centimeters of precipitation falling each time. It snowed for 13 days in Daejeon last month alone, with the total amount of precipitation exceeding 39 centimeters. That's three times as many snowy days as usual, and eight times as much snow as in previous years. Calcium chloride is now in short supply. The Daejeon City government has already used half of the 760 tons of salt it had prepared for this winter. In 2011, that amount was enough to be used throughout the winter.

[Soundbite] Myeong Je-seok(Daejeon Metropolitan Government) : "Since Dec. 3, except for one or two days, we removed snow almost daily."

The Chungcheong headquarters of the Korea Expressway Corporation has used 90 percent of the 3200 tons of calcium chloride it had stocked up for this winter. Local governments nationwide are running out of snow removing materials and have no choice but to substitute them with salt or sand. As orders for calcium chloride have poured in, its price recently soared 50 percent, and it's not even always in stock. With more frequent snowfalls expected this winter, snow removal efforts will likely hit many snags.

3. Slippery Streets

[Anchor Lead]

Walking is a treacherous task on the nation’s frozen streets these days. Here are some precautions to take to avoid a painful tumble.

[Pkg]

This woman in her 70s slipped in front of her home and is suffering from a fracture in her hip bone. She says she didn't know the street was icy under the snow. This winter's record-breaking chill and heavy snowfall froze up streets and roads all across Korea. Due to this, many pedestrians are suffering from injuries after slipping and falling. Nationwide, an average of around 290 people are being injured every day because of the frozen roads. Since winter began, around 7,000 people have been injured from slipping. Icy paths are especially dangerous for the elderly who have weaker bones and sense of balance and have slower reactions. In the case of this hospital, all of the some 20 patients that were recently hospitalized after falling on ice are 60 or older. To prevent such accidents, doctors advise staying indoors on snowy days if possible, and avoiding walking on snowy or icy streets.

[Soundbite] Dr. Park Geun-ho(Orthopedist) : "Since a lot of seniors have severe osteoporosis, there’s a high risks they’ll fracture their hip, spine or wrist when falling."

Doctors also recommend seeing a physician after falling even if nothing seems wrong since inflammation can occur in the bones or cartilage.

4. In Transition

[Anchor Lead]

President-elect Park Geun-hye looks ready to announce the complete roster of her transition committee as early as Friday. Meanwhile, the ruling and opposition parties have decided to hold an extraordinary parliamentary session this month.

[Pkg]

President-elect Park Geun-hye says she will announce the lineup of her transition committee within this week. The announcement came later than expected, because candidates for transition team members are thoroughly screened for their tax payments, military service and possible criminal records.

[Soundbite] Yoon Chang-jung(Spokesman, Transition Committee) : "Procedures are necessary to confirm if they’re qualified to be transition committee members."

An aide to the president-elect said that the transition team will begin its duties this coming weekend. He added that although the launch of the transition team has been delayed, there should be no problems with power transition as long as the team is run efficiently. Working-level preparations have already begun. Twenty-eight officials of the ruling Saenuri Party were dispatched to make working-level preparations for the transition team on January 3. Four out of the transition team's nine departments will move into the central government complex in Gwanghwamun, because its office in Samcheong-dong is too small. Meanwhile, the ruling and opposition parties have promised to make a fresh start in their New Year ceremonies on January 2.

[Soundbite] Rep. Hwang Woo Yea(Saenuri Party) : "Above all, we should exert our every effort to reform the party."

[Soundbite] Rep. Park Ki-choon(Floor Leader, Democratic United Party) : "We’ll examine and reflect on ourselves on whether we’ve thrown away our personal interests and motives. We’ll reform and evaluate ourselves thoroughly and rigorously."

The parties have agreed to hold an extraordinary parliamentary session this month. The ruling Saenuri Party is calling for a government overhaul, while the main opposition Democratic United Party is urging the launch of a parliamentary inspection into the labor dispute at Ssangyong Motor.

5. Insurance Promises

[Anchor Lead]

One of Park's campaign pledges was to expand national health insurance coverage to include four serious diseases. But a lack of funding remains a serious stumbling block.

[Pkg]

During her presidential campaign, President-elect Park Geun-hye promised that people will not have to worry anymore about health care costs.

[Soundbite] Park Geun-hye(President-Elect/Dec. 15, 2012) : "Even if one member becomes seriously ill, the entire family’s economy crumbles. There are cases where families that were once in the middle class fall into poverty."

Park says she will expand the national health insurance coverage to include cancer, heart and cerebrovascular diseases as well as rare, hard-to-cure diseases regardless of their treatment costs. She promised full coverage by 2016. The president-elect also pledged that people who are 65 and older will gradually receive national insurance coverage for dental implants as well. Park wants to overhaul the current medicare system, which provides health care costs according to an individual's income. She wants to classify it into 10 stages instead of the current three, so that the lowest-income people will have to pay no more than 470 dollars in health care costs every year. But funding remains an issue. The only way to keep the campaign pledge is by cutting down on unnecessary expenses and receiving help from the Treasury to make up for health insurance costs. It's up to the incoming administration to make the plan work.

[Soundbite] Prof. Kim Sang-cheol(Hansei University) : "No concrete measures have yet been suggested on how much financing will be needed or how to obtain this amount."

Park also promised to raise charity funds to help people pay for nursing costs, not provided by the national health insurance, but critics say the idea is simply unrealistic. This year, the National Assembly cut the health care budget by more than 560 million U.S. dollars. Unless there is a fundamental solution, the president-elect's campaign pledges regarding health care could hit a snag as soon as she takes office.

6. Flu Alert

[Anchor Lead]

The seasonal flu is slowly beginning to spread nationwide. Children, seniors and those with chronic diseases should take extra care.

[Pkg]

This six year old girl was brought to the hospital because of a fever, cough and a runny nose. The girl was eventually hospitalized as her the flu turned into pneumonia. An influenza pandemic is announced when at least four out of a thousand outpatients are diagnosed with the flu. The number of flu patients grew from 2.7 out of a thousand in the second week of December to 2.8 in the third week. If the trend continues, the flu pandemic could spread fast in mid-January and reach its peak at the end of the month. This time, symptoms include a high fever and severe muscle pain. The H3 virus found in the seasonal flu this time is known to have the most severe symptoms among all seasonal influenza viruses.

[Soundbite] Prof. Kim U-ju(Korea University Guro Hospital) : "For the elderly and those with chronic illnesses, the A/H3 type flu can develop into pneumonia, hospitalizing them and even leading to death. It’s a very severe type of flu."

As the flu pandemic can continue into April, doctors advise people who are 65 and older as well as those with chronic diseases to get flu shots as soon as possible. Doctors say that at least eight glasses of water a day and good personal hygiene habits help keep the flu at bay.

7. Rain Storm

[Anchor Lead]

Singer and actor Rain has come under fire for receiving 94 days off from his mandatory military service last year. The Defense Ministry is investigating whether he received special privileges because of his star status.

[Pkg]

Singer Rain, whose real name is Jung Ji-hoon, began his military duties in 2011. Since last March, he has worked as a celebrity soldier for the Defense Ministry's PR Support Team. The ministry's documents say that the singer took 50 days off in the form of rewards and leaves after arduous duties. He also took 44 more days off under the pretext of dance and concert rehearsals. In other words, the singer spent 94 days outside his military barracks without even taking a regular leave. Soldiers can usually take 43 days off including their regular leave, but Rain had twice that amount.

[Soundbite] Im Eui-jung(Fmr. Soldier) : "For ordinary people it's difficult to even take one day off, so it doesn’t make sense for only celebrity soldiers to get treated to such long leaves."

The Defense Ministry has launched a probe to figure out if Rain received any privileges. If the investigation reveals that he used his 44 days off for personal matters, he will receive a penalty. A military official says that Rain has suspended his activities in the military's PR Support Team and is awaiting the investigation. The military's PR team has 15 celebrity soldiers, who may inevitably undergo investigations themselves.

8. Juke Box Musicals

[Anchor Lead]

So-called "juke box musicals," which feature nostalgic songs, are grabbing the spotlight these days. Check it out.

[Pkg]

The music of late composer Lee Young-hoon, who was known for his fantastic collaboration with singer Lee Moon-se back in the 80s and 90s, never stops enchanting listeners. This musical features all of the late composer's hit songs. It debuted in 2011 and was even staged in Japan. The popular songs of composer Oh Tae-ho, who rose to stardom in the 1990s, are also performed these days in a musical. These "juke box musicals" featuring nostalgic and romantic songs tug on the heartstrings of people in their 30s and 40s.

[Soundbite] Hong Ji-min(Actress) : "This musical reminds me of the old days. Rather than acting, it's like going back to that time and enjoying the nostalgia. "

Retro-style original musicals are rising in popularity these days. One of them features the songs of late singer Kim Kwang-seok. But some say that they have yet to perfect their dramatical aspect to enhance the romantic mood of the music.

[Soundbite] Prof. Won Jong-won(Musical Critic) : "Their experimental aspects, development, maturity, and growth are still not sufficient."

Once their plots are improved, juke box musicals could broaden the horizon of the performance arts in the long term.

9. Heater Danger

[Anchor Lead]

The bitter cold is bumping up the number of heating devices in use in homes around the nation, but if you’re not careful, they can be dangerous.

[Pkg]

The use of heating devices is growing every day as the freezing weather continues.

[Soundbite] "No one knew that I would get burns like this. "

This woman has been receiving medical treatment for two weeks for burns that were caused by heating pads.

[Soundbite] Dr. Mun Deok-ju(Burn Specialist) : "Low-temperature burns that damage the skin are caused by chronic exposure to heat at low levels of 40 degrees (Celsius), which is a bit higher than body temperature. "

Another patient got burns from an electric mat.

[Soundbite] Kim Gwang-sun(Burn Patient) : "How on earth could this happen? I would have felt the heat if it were hot. But I felt nothing when I got these burns. I found them after I returned home and took a shower, because they were itching. "

This is a test on the potential danger of common heating devices. A pillow is put on a heated electric mat. An egg is put under the pillow. An hour later, the egg is almost cooked. A symptom of low-temperature burns is marked redness and coloring in localized areas of the skin. It’s caused by repeated exposure to lower heat than that which causes a thermal burn.

[Soundbite] Dr. Kim Sang-deok(Dermatologist) : "It’s a unique type of burn that’s caused by direct exposure of the skin to infrared ray from heaters or other heating devices. "

Those marks tend to persist.

[Soundbite] "People can get burns if they are repeatedly exposed to the heat. The risk of skin caner also grows if they neglect low-temperature burns. In a nutshell, they stand a high chance of getting skin cancer. "

Here are some first-aid tips on how to deal with low-temperature burns. First, wash the burn with water or saline solution to cool it down. Next, take the patient to a hospital after drying the skin with a clean towel.

[Soundbite] "Patients must avoid taking off clothes and popping blisters near the burn. "

As always, prevention is the best medicine. Heating pads and electric mats should not be placed directly on the skin. Foot bathing devices should only be used for less than half an hour.

[Soundbite] "In many cases, low-temperature burns are deep, although they’re small in size. It’s important for patients to receive good medical treatment at a hospital when they get low-temperature burns."

If you use them correctly, heating devices don’t have to be dangerous.
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